In Crete, we are blessed to live in a place, which is the birthplace of olive cultivation, which history began from the ancient time of the Minoan civilization. Wherever you look at in Crete, you will see an olive tree. There are many, but not all are the same. In Crete there are three well-established varieties of olives. Each variety varies in taste, calories and nutrients. The differences in the nutrients mainly concern quantities and antioxidant action. Studies have shown that Cretan olives have more types of antioxidants, especially 19 kinds of polyphenols.
Koroneiki or Psilolia
It is the most famous variety of fine olive oil production, occupying 60% of Greek production. It has small size fruits and ripen from October to December. It is known as a very productive variety, resistant to dry and hot conditions and the content of the olive oil is 27%. The tree needs little care and can withstand low temperatures.
Chondrolia or Throumbolia
Grown extensively in Greece for the production of olive oil and table olives. The tree reaches a height of 5-10 meters and the fruit content in olive oil reaches 28%. The fruit of Chondrolia during ripe stage on the tree loses part of its humidity and oleuropein, a substance responsible for the bitter taste of olives. Variety is demanding to moisture and nutrients, and during dry periods it doesn’t fructify.
Tsounati or Mouratolia
This variety blooms from the end of April until the end of May and the fruit ripens from late October until the end of November. Withstand low temperatures produces good quality olive oil. The fruit has a medium oil content close to 25% and requires good soil and cultivation.